QUADRIGA

QuaDRiGa, short for QUAsi Deterministic RadIo channel GenerAtor, is used for generating realistic radio channel impulse responses for system-level simulations of mobile radio networks. These simulations are used to determine the performance of new technologies in order to provide an objective indicator for the standardization process in bodies like the third generation partnership program 3GPP.

QuaDRiGa was developed at Fraunhofer HHI to enable the modeling of MIMO radio channels for specific network configurations, such as indoor, satellite or heterogeneous configurations. Besides being a fully-fledged three dimensional geometry-based stochastic channel model, QuaDRiGa contains a collection of features created in SCM(e) and WINNER channel models along with novel modeling approaches which provide features to enable quasi-deterministic multi-link tracking of users (receiver) movements in changing environments.

The new version (v2.0) of QuaDRiGa contains a couple of new features and is furthermore calibrated against 3GPP channel models like 3GPP-3D and the latest New Radio channel model. The supported (standardized) channel models are:

Added features in version 2.0:

Features of  version 1.4:

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Quadriga Version: 2.0.0-664 QuaDRiGa is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. The details can be seen below. Please free to contact us for technical requests under: QuaDRiGa team.

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Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>

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Features

The QuaDRiGa channel model largely extends the WINNER model to support several new features that were originally not included.
Variable speeds for mobile terminals - QuaDRiGa supports variable speeds including accelerating and sowing down of mobile terminals.
Geometric polarization - The polarizations for the LOS and for the NLOS case is now calculated based on a ray-geometric approach.
New functions for modifying antenna patterns - Antenna patterns can now be freely rotated in 3D-coordinates while maintaining the polarization properties.
Scenario transitions - When the MT moves through the fading channel, it may pass through several different scenarios. QuaDRiGa supports smooth transitions between adjacent channel segments. This is used to emulate long term time evolution and allows the simulation of e.g. handover scenarios.
Time evolution - Short term time evolution of the channel coefficients is realized by updating the delays, the departure- and arrival angels, the polarization, the shadow fading and the K-Factor based on the position of the terminal.
New MATLAB implementation - The MATLAB code was completely rewritten. The implementations now fosters object oriented programming and object handles. This increases the performance significantly and lowers the memory usage.
Improved method for calculating correlated LSP - The WINNER model calculates maps of correlated parameter values using filtered random numbers. QuaDRiGa uses the same method but extends the map generation algorithm to also consider diagonal movement directions and to create smoother outputs.
Common framework for LOS and NLOS simulations - In WINNER, LOS and NLOS scenarios were treated  differently. QuaDRiGa used the same method for both scenarios types. This reduces the model complexity  and enables freely configurable multicell scenarios. E.g. one MT can see two BS, one in LOS and another in  NLOS.

Documentation

The technical documentation gives a detailed overview of the QuaDRiGa channel model, its implementation details and tutorials providing examples for usage. The model has been evolved from the WINNER channel model described in WINNER II deliverable D1.1.2 v.1.2. This document covers only the model itself. Measurement campaigns covering the extraction of suitable parameters can be found in the WINNER documentation. Furthermore, the MIMOSA project covers the model development and parameter extraction for  land-mobile satellite channels.

Technical Documentation

Configurations

The channel model is parametrized for various applications and scenarios, e.g. urban macrocellular (UMa) or urban microcellular (UMi). The model parameters for these scenarios are either based on measurement campaigns or on standardized models. While a multitude of common configuration files  comes with the QuaDRiGa implementation, additional parameterizations based on single measurement campaigns are available here.

Configuration files

Questions & Answers

HOW DO I CITE QUADRIGA AND THE REFERENCE IMPLEMENTATION?

The channel model itself can be sited like this:

S. Jaeckel, L. Raschkowski, K. Börner and L. Thiele, "QuaDRiGa: A 3-D Multicell Channel Model with Time Evolution for Enabling Virtual Field Trials", IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, 2014.
Please use the implementation version as a footnote for easier bug tracking and to enable others to reproduce your results:
The simulation results were generated using QuaDRiGa Version 1.2.3-307.

IS THERE A WAY THAT QUADRIGA CAN BE FITTED TO MY EXISTING SYSTEM LEVEL SIMULATOR?

The system level innovations group may provide solutions for including QuaDRiGa to your system level simulator. Please contact Lars Thiele for further information.

WHAT CAN I DO WHEN THE NEEDED STORAGE ABILITIES EXCEED MY COMPUTER?

The system level innovations group may offer computing time for channel trace generation. If you are interested in this service, please contact Lars Thiele.

WHAT ARE TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS TO STORAGE ABILITIES OF MY COMPUTER?

A typical scenario consisting of 57 macro base station with a regular hexagonal grid and 20 mobile terminals being observed for 200 ms and 500 realizations take about 611 GB of hard disk space with a 4x2 MIMO configuration.

WHAT DO I HAVE TO PAY WHEN DOWNLOADING QUADRIGA?

Nothing! QuaDRiGa is an open source library published under GNU Lesser General Public License.

ARE THERE ANY SEMINARS FOR AN INTRODUCTION TO QUADRIGA?

Currently we have no scheduled seminars introducing QuaDRiGa. Please contact Lars Thiele if you need further information on seminars.

IS QUADRIGA CAPABLE OF MODELING MASSIVE MIMO PROPAGATION- ALSO KNOWN AS LARGE SCALE ANTENNA SYSTEMS (LSAS)?

Principally yes. Although modeling accuracy is limited by errors caused by the plane wave propagation assumptions and the currently employed scatterer model. Future extensions of QuaDRi- Ga are planned for more accurate modeling of massive MIMO propagation.

WHO CAN I CONTACT WHEN I AM FACING DIFFICULTIES USING QUADRIGA?

Please use the contact form on the website if you have any questions.

WAS QUADRIGA ALREADY USED IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS?

QuaDRiGa has already been used for scientific publications internally as well as externally. See the QuaDRiGa publication for more information.

WHICH ARE THE MAIN DIFFERENCES TO COMMON CHANNEL MODELS LIKE WINNER, SCM(E) OR 3GPP LTE?

The QuaDRiGa channel model largely extends the WINNER model to support several new features that were originally not included. These are: Time evolution, scenario transitions, variable speed for user mobile terminals, common framework for NLOS and LOS simulations, geometric polarization, improved method for calculating correlated propagation maps, new functions for modifying antenna patterns and a new MATLAB© implementation. For more detailed information refer to the QuaDRiGa documentation.

WHY DO I HAVE TO SUBMIT MY EMAIL ADDRESS WHEN DOWNLOAD THE SOURCE CODE?

QuaDRiGa is continuously developed. Therefore, updates will be releases and we would like to let you know of future updates.

Publications

F. Burkhardt, E. Eberlein, S. Jaeckel, G. Sommerkorn and R. Prieto-Cerdeira, "MIMOSA–a dual approach to detailed land mobile satellite channel modeling", International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, 2014.
K. Börner, J. Dommel, S. Jaeckel and L. Thiele, "On The Requirements for Quasi-Deterministic Radio Channel Models for Heterogeneous Networks", 2012 International Symposium on Signals, Systems and Electronics (ISSSE), pp.1-5, 3-5 Oct. 2012.
S. Jaeckel, K. Börner, L. Thiele and V. Jungnickel, "A Geometric Polarization Rotation Model for the 3D Spatial Channel Model", IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.60, no.12, pp.5966-5977, Dec. 2012.
S. Jaeckel, L. Raschkowski, K. Börner and L. Thiele, "QuaDRiGa: A 3-D Multicell Channel Model with Time Evolution for Enabling Virtual Field Trials", IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, 2014.
F. Burkhardt, E. Eberlein, S. Jaeckel, G. Sommerkorn and R. Prieto-Cerdeira, "QuaDRiGa: a MIMO Channel Model for Land Mobile Satellite", 2014 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2014.  

Grants & Funding

This work is supported by:
European Commission funded project 5G PPP mmMAGIC (Millimetre-Wave Based Mobile Radio Access Network for Fifth Generation Integrated Communications)
European Commission co-funded the project METIS as an Integrated Project under the Seventh Framework Programme for research and development (FP7)
Stichting GreenTouch within the funded project "LSAS Channel Modelling"
Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) in the national collaborative project IntelliSpektrum under contract 01ME11024.
European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) under contract AO/1-5985/09/08/NL/LvH (Acronym: MIMOSA)
Our Partners:
Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS
European Space Agency

Contact

  • Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications
  • Heinrich Hertz Institute
  • Wireless Communications and Networks
  • Einsteinufer 37
  • 10587 Berlin

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